Copper is a "double-edged sword." Although critical for antioxidant production (such as SOD — super oxide dismutase, one of the body's natural free-radical scavengers that reduce pain and inflammation) it also is a potent free radical trigger and is quite toxic in excess. For example, one study showed that men in the highest 25% of serum copper values were 50% more likely to die during the study when compared to subjects in the lowest quartile. To strike an optimal balance, I recommend 1/2 mg/day of copper.

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